How to handle exceptions in C++?

In C++, exception handling is typically implemented using try-catch blocks. Write code that may throw an exception in the try block, and then catch and handle the exception in the catch block. Multiple catch blocks can be used to catch different types of exceptions, or an ellipsis (…) can be used to catch all exceptions that are not explicitly caught. Additionally, exceptions can be manually thrown using the throw keyword. The overall structure of exception handling is as follows:

try {
    // 可能引发异常的代码
} catch (ExceptionType1 e) {
    // 处理类型为ExceptionType1的异常
} catch (ExceptionType2 e) {
    // 处理类型为ExceptionType2的异常
} catch (...) {
    // 处理其他未被显式捕获的异常

In addition to using try-catch blocks, you can also create custom exceptions using the exception classes in the standard library. Common standard exception classes include std::exception, std::runtime_error, std::logic_error, etc. Custom exception classes can be created to meet specific exception handling needs.

Additionally, RAII (Resource Acquisition Is Initialization) technology can be used to handle exceptions by acquiring resources in the object’s constructor and releasing resources in the destructor, ensuring proper resource cleanup even in the event of an exception.

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