How can generic programming be implemented in C++?

In C++, generic programming can be achieved through templates. Templates are a universal programming technique that allows us to write an algorithm or data structure without having to worry about specific data types. With templates, we can define a generic algorithm or data structure and then instantiate specific data types as needed.

Here is a basic template function for swapping the values of two variables:

template <typename T>
void swap(T& a, T& b) {
    T temp = a;
    a = b;
    b = temp;

When calling this function, you can pass in variables of any type, such as:

int x = 5, y = 10;
swap(x, y); // 交换两个整数的值

double m = 3.14, n = 2.71;
swap(m, n); // 交换两个双精度浮点数的值

Using templates, we can implement generic algorithms or data structures to improve the reusability and flexibility of our code. It is important to note that templates are instantiated during compilation, resulting in specific code for different types of parameters.

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